Bible Word Study: ‘new’ in Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic

This is not meant to be an exhaustive study, but mean to be short and to the point. If you have any views, insights, corrections to the pro or con please email the editor.

Does the word ‘new’ in some instances actually mean ‘renewed?’ Possibly. In the Old Testament, in the Hebrew, there is no clear distinction. In the New Testament, in the Aramaic, a close sister language to Hebrew, likewise, there is no clear distinction. Go to the Greek and yes we find clear support for this idea.

New Testament – GREEK
There are 2 main Greek words used for new.

G3501:  neos   –   brand new (in relation to time or age):  recently born, young, youthful, recently made, recently produced.  New wine – Mark 2:22.  [  Mother made her son a new pair of play pants. ]

G2537:  kaino   –  new (especially in freshness), different (in comparison with the old):  refreshed, renewed, restored.  [  Mother made her son’s play pants new by cleaning them. ]

NEW COVENANT or Renewed Covenant?
Matthew 26:28 (KJV):  “For this is my blood of the new[G2537] testament (covenant), which is shed for many for the remission of sins.”

NEW HEAVEN and NEW EARTH?  Or Refreshed, Renewed?

Revelation 21:1 (KJV), the Apostle John states:
“And I saw a new[G2537] heaven and a new[G2537] earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away[now passed, gone away]; and there was no more sea.”

2 Peter 3:13 (KJV):  “Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new[G2537] heavens and a new[G2537] earth, wherein dwells the righteousness.”

Matthew 5:18 (KJV):  Jesus (Y’shua) said:
“For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.”

Matthew 24:35 (KJV):  Jesus (Y’shua) said:Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.”

The phrase “till heaven and earth pass” and “Heaven and earth shall pass away” are Hebrew slang phrase meaning “it is never going to happen.” Similar to the American phrase: “When Hell freezes over.” No one ever expects Hell to actually freeze. Compare with Jesus’ (Y’shua) statement in Luke 16:17: “it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.”

Old Testament – HEBREW

The Hebrew word for ‘new’ does not distinguish, like the Greek does, between new (freshness) and new (created), although the root Hebrew word means to cause to be rebuilt, renewed, or repaired.  Taking the Hebrew alone does not necessarily prove or disprove the concept of the word ‘new’ meaning ‘renewed.’

:  châdâsh   –   new: – fresh, new thing.  Root (H2318):  to be new; causatively to rebuild: – renew, repair.

Jeremiah 31:31 (KJV):  “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new[H2319] covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:”

Isaiah 65:17 (KJV):  “For, behold, I create new[H2319] heavens and a new[H2319] earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.”
Isaiah 66:22 (KJV):  “For as the new[H2319] heavens and the new[H2319] earth, which I will make[accomplish, bring forth], shall remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain.”


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